By Susan L. Cutter
Barrier islands. Flood plains. Earthquake faults. occasionally the surroundings poses threats to our health, but many folks proceed to settle on to reside in dicy or harmful areas. And on best of the knowns-rdquo; are the opposite, extra hidden dangers regarding environmental illness that pose both critical threats to our well-being and good being.But the place are those areas and what forms of dangers are chanced on there? American Hazardscapes examines the dangers linked to dwelling and possessing estate in different areas around the usa, delivering twin views: that of the geographer and that of the social technological know-how risks researcher. The booklet summarizes what we already learn about local styles of chance occasions and losses through the earlier 3 a long time and is going extra to make clear the character of the occasions themselves and their impression on society.Written for the moving citizen and the coverage maker alike, American Hazardscapes offers a local ecology of disaster-prone or disaster-resistant states. It additionally bargains recommendations on what neighborhood, kingdom, and federal managers have to do to fulfill the problem of decreasing risk losses within the subsequent century.
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Additional info for American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters (2001)(en)(226s)
Designed for emergency managers, planners, city officials, and utility managers, the tool provides a standardized loss estimate for a variety of geographic units. g. , distribution of fires, floods, location of hazardous materials). HAZUS calculates a probable maximum loss. It also calculates average annual loss, a long-term average that includes the effects of frequent small events and infrequent larger events (FEMA 2000a). At present, losses are generated on the basis of “scenario earthquakes,” which is a limitation of the tool because the location and magnitude of the “scenario earthquakes” may not represent the actual magnitude or location of future events.
The index uses 13 biophysical variables such as elevation, wave heights, hurricane probability, and hurricane intensity, which are ranked from low to high (1 to 5). S. shoreline segments examined. The data are geocoded and can be used in conjunction with other geographic information to produce vulnerability assessments. S. coastlines from Maine to Texas, southern California to Washington, and along the Great Lakes. Using historic shoreline records dating back to the 1930s or earlier, historic rates of erosion are used to calculate an annual erosion rate.
There has been no subsequent update or revision of this original index. L nt ia ou is go St Fr Sa n Sa an ci sc o C i ty o M ex ic M an ila m a Li ta ka r Ja nb ul ta Is Bo st on 30 (b) Boston Istanbul Jakarta Lima Hazard Exposure Vulnerability External Context Manila San Francisco Emer. Resp. & Recov. Santiago St. Louis Mexico City Tokyo FIGURE 2-5 Earthquake disaster risk index: (a) comparison of 10 cities according to their overall earthquake disaster potential and (b) individual components of vulnerability that contribute to it.