By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough reviews ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar studies the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse positive factors of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o shows many strange typological gains, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our realizing of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan family members of languages in historic and areal standpoint.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
Stress remains where it would have been placed had the enclitic not been present. An example with an object proclitic and a modal enclitic is shown in (52). (52) Ni=pe-yax=’ep. 1 S O -3 S -S A Y = R He said to me. (Faye Tramp 75 018 ) The object proclitics, in contrast to the subject and possessor prefixes, are not stressed when they appear with unstressed roots. 2. (53) Chem=che=pe ishmivi-y i=max. F We will give something to you. (2 43 478 ) The stressless verb root kwa -s ‘eat’ behaves differently from the other stressless roots.
It is probably the former, because of forms like aleyew ‘pick lice’, with habilitative aleye’ew, but we cannot be sure. Their habilitative and singular imperative forms thus make it clear that verb roots like puy ‘dine’ and isaxw ‘sing a man’s song’ end in consonants. However, vowels appear when these verbs are nominalized with NPN suffixes, which have the shape -C unless they are followed by plural -m. ) These epenthetic vowels are shown in (65). (65) Epenthetic vowels in nominalizations of consonant-final verb roots a.
Loanwords from other Indian languages are evident. Indeed, the word Kupa itself may be a loanword from Diegueño, cf. ’Iipay Aa (Mesa Grande Diegueño) haa-kupin ‘water-warm’ (Couro & Hutcheson 1973:19), the name for the hot springs. Another Diegueño loanword may be the word for ‘red’, kwatikwati’ish, cf. ’Iipay Aa ’ehwattehwaatt ‘is reddish’ (Couro & Hutcheson 1973:3). 6. Hyer (2001:154–55) reports that Salvadora Valenzuela, who was relatively well educated and literate, was the housekeeper at the Pala Indian School.