By Ariane van Buren
Makes use of diagrams and images to teach how the elemental layout of the biogas pit could be tailored for development in numerous soils, from sandstone to sheer rock, which should still motivate different constructing nations to embark all alone biogas courses. Reprinted in 1997.
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A variety of research areas for further study have sprung from this exploratory exercise. On the one hand, using household data may allow for a more detailed study of each group's characteristics, particularly of the extremely digitally poor group of individuals, to identify policies focused on the specific restrictions that would need to be overcome to effectively reduce digital poverty. On the other hand, the ad hoc application of the conceptual framework, by carrying out a survey to determine different "digital" uses among individuals through Internet or mobile telephone services may be in place.
The second kind of policy emphasizes a direct role of the public sector in providing access to the population through subsidized programs. These two kinds of policies reflect the need to fight two phenomena, which the World Bank has called the Market Gap and the Access Gap. The Market Gap refers to the difference between the penetration level that could be reached under non-optimal market conditions and under optimal conditions. The Access Gap refers to the unavoidable market failures where some population groups are not serviced because their access is not considered profitable.
Telefonica has followed an aggressive expansion policy in recent years. The most important acquisition has been the franchise of local fixed telephone services in Brazil, which has led to control of one-third of the telephone lines in Latin America's biggest country. At the same time, it has acquired all of Bellsouth's mobile telephone operations in Latin America. With this acquisition, Telefonica reached 55 million mobile telephone users in the region at the end of 2004 (Table 3). 8% of total users in that country (Table 4).