By Lyn Macdonald
Via the tip of 1914, the battered British forces have been slowed down, but hopeful that promised reinforcements and spring climate might quickly result in a effective step forward. A 12 months later, after appalling losses at Aubers Ridge, bathrooms, Neuve Chapelle, Ypres and far flung Gallipoli, battling appeared set to move on for ever. Drawing on broad interviews, letters and diaries, this booklet brilliantly conjures up the soldiers' dogged heroism, sardonic humour and negative lack of innocence via 'a 12 months of cobbling jointly, of frustration, of indecision'. Over decades' study places Lyn Macdonald one of the maximum well known chroniclers of the 1st global struggle. right here, from the poignant thoughts of contributors, she has once more created an unforgettable slice of army heritage.
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Extra info for 1915: The Death of Innocence
France was relatively slow to adopt the new industrial techniques, except in the outstanding instance of the automobile industry. The two large firms of Renault and Citroen, and to a lesser extent Peugeot, adopted mass production methods with the benefit of state credit and large state orders. Germany was quick to develop those industries in which, before 1914, it had enjoyed a special lead: notably the chemical, electrical, engineering and new textile industries. Sweden, which at the beginning of the century had just tipped in balance from a predominantly agricultural to a predominantly industrial economy, efficiently developed such appropriate new industries as pulp and paper-making, electrical products and engineering.
Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CHAPTER II THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIAL LIFE T HE forty years before the second world war brought far-reaching changes in the ways of life and the standards of living of European peoples. These changes were wrought by historical forces and events which had diverse effects in different countries. When the twentieth century began Europe already fell into three fairly well-defined regions. Europe east of the Elbe remained essentially a peasant Europe, where industrialisation had spread slowly for some fifty years and where national consciousness had developed speedily, often on a linguistic, family or racial basis.
5 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 3-2 THE SHIFTING BALANCE OF WORLD FORCES atoms, and equally the theorems of Planck and Einstein, pointed not merely to the transformation of physics but to the later exploitation of nuclear power. Here was a 'long revolution', continuing largely out of public sight between the wars, to its demonic revelation in 1945. Equally gradual was the advance of genetics, building on Mendel's forgotten work. The discovery of drugs to resist or cure disease was more dramatic: Ronald Ross and Walter Reed showed at the beginning of the century how malaria and yellow fever could be controlled—'western' scientists helping to transform the lives of millions in other continents.